Sforzando = when an attack hits hard, diminuendos, and then crescendos… all in one attack
Crescendos = making the music increasingly louder
Tremolos = rapidly attacking the note
Dynamics = mezzo forte, forte, piano, mezzo piano. Indicating how loud or soft the music is to be performed.
Hairpins = another word for Crescendos (see above definition)
Unisons are the same EXACT note played at two different positions on an instrument. A piano does NOT have unisons, but a guitar does! Usually, stringed instruments like Banjo, Violin, Guitar, etc have octaves and unisons, where as instruments like Flute, Piano, and Saxophone have ONLY the ability to play octaves. But what you could do is have two flute players play together – which could create the unison.
On the same example, if you had two singers sing the same exact note, then the two singers are referred to be “in unison”. But don’t be confused between Unisons and Octaves. Octaves are not the same EXACT note. For example – there is more than one ‘A note’ on guitar, of different Octaves.
What are Octaves?
A good example of Octaves is when you walk up a C major scale = C D E F G A B C. Notice how there are 2 C’s. The second C is an Octave higher than the first one.
Let’s look at a piano:
Notice how it has Octaves throughtout – but it is impossible to play two of the same note at the same time.
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OK – so here’s how to listen to a song and put chords to songs by ear. Its an important know-how to learn. Why? Because when you begin to hear the music in your head it shows through your playing and your writing. Ever wanted to do a guitar solo over your friends house? Well, when you can ‘hear’ the notes before their played, you can improvise that much better. This example takes Mary had a Little Lamb and puts simple chords over the song for you. Start small – then work up to that crazy solo!